Building Arduino on a Breadboard

Detailed instructions on ITP site

Inside a breadboard - rows are connected, far left and right columns are connected intended for power and ground.

Capacitor: a passive electronic component consisting of a pair of conductors separated by a dielectric (insulator). Capacitors are widely used in electronic circuits for blocking direct current while allowing alternating current to pass, in filter networks, for smoothing the output of power supplies. - Wikipedia Entry
The capacitor below is polarized, the negative leg has a silver band along the same side:
capacitor.jpg polarized_capacitor_symbol.png

Voltage Regulator: an electrical regulator designed to automatically maintain a constant voltage level. The voltage regulator below is a simple "feed-forward" design.
voltageRegulator.jpg voltageRegulator_symbol.png

Light-emitting diode (LED): used as indicator lamps in many devices, and are increasingly used for lighting. Introduced as a practical electronic component in 1962, early LEDs emitted low-intensity red light, but modern versions are available across the visible, ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths, with very high brightness.
led.gif diod_LED_symbol.png

Resistor: a two-terminal passive electronic component which implements electrical resistance as a circuit element. When a voltage V is applied across the terminals of a resistor, a current I will flow through the resistor in direct proportion to that voltage. The reciprocal of the constant of proportionality is known as the resistance R, since, with a given voltage V, a larger value of R further "resists" the flow of current I as given by Ohm's law: I = V/R
Wikipedia Entry
resistor.jpg resistor_symbol.png

Push Button normally open

Microcontroller: Atmel, Atmega - a small computer on a single integrated circuit containing a processor core, memory, and programmableinput/output peripherals. Program memory in the form of NOR flash or OTP ROM is also often included on chip, as well as a typically small amount of RAM. Microcontrollers are designed for embedded applications, in contrast to the microprocessors used in personal computers or other general purpose applications.
Wikipedia Entry
atmegaSurfaceMount.jpg atmega.jpg Atmega168PinMap2.png

Crystal Clock or crystal oscillator: an electronic oscillator circuit that uses the mechanical resonance of a vibrating crystal of piezoelectric material to create an electrical signal with a very precise frequency. This frequency is commonly used to keep track of time (as in quartz wristwatches), to provide a stable clock signal for digital integrated circuits, and to stabilize frequencies for radio transmitters and receivers.
Wikipedia Entry

Ceramic Capacitor: A ceramic capacitor is a two-terminal, non-polar device. The classical ceramic capacitor is the "disc capacitor". This device pre-dates the transistor and was used extensively in vacuum-tube equipment (e.g., radio receivers) from about 1930 through the 1950s, and in discrete transistor equipment from the 1950s through the 1980s. As of 2007, ceramic disc capacitors are in widespread use in electronic equipment, providing high capacity and small size at low price compared to other low value capacitor types.

Full Schematic for Arduino, a schematic is a mapping of the components and circuit, not a direct visual representation of the prototyping board.

Assembly of Arduino without USB connector on Breadboard next to UNO (not using UNO, only using breadboard)

Power, switch and voltage regulator

AVR portion of circuit

All the pieces assembled, this allows prototyping off Arduino with a programmed ATMEL chip. The circuit is stripped to bare essentials once the chip has been programmed.